Which type of cement to use ?

Cement

Which Type of Cement to Use

Cement is a hydraulic binding agent, that is, a finely inorganic ground material which, when mixed with water, forms a paste that will harden progressively over time.

Cement Types Sold by CQI

wdt_ID Type of cement Description
8 Masonry Type N and S Production of mortars Type N, Type S.
2 GUb-8SF Cement blended with silica fume.
For bridges, overpass, high resistance structures, high durability.
3 GU PER Specialized cement for constructions needing a lighter color.
Used for masonry and colored precast concrete elements.
4 MS Moderate sulfate resistance cement.
This type of cement is generally used in New England, USA. ProBase cement is a MS type cement used in soil stabilization techniques.
5 MH MHb-10F Moderate heat of hydration cement.
Enercem™ MH cement type used for mass concrete construction.
6 HE High early strength cement.
For precast concrete and other uses.
7 HS HSb-8SF et HSb-10F High sulfate resistance cement.
Enercem™, Compactcem™.

Which Type of Cement Better Suits my Needs?
In Canada, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) specifies six types of cement under the standard A3001. These cements are produced to answer precise physical and chemical specifications. GU General use cement is a multipurpose cement suitable for all applications not requiring the special properties of any other type of cement. Used in various applications such as : pavement, floors, buildings, sidewalks, pipes, masonry blocs, etc.

MS Moderate Sulfate Resistant Cement is used to protect concrete against moderate sulfate attacks. It is used for common structures or structure elements in contact with soils or underground water having sulfate concentration higher than normal but not exceptionally high. Concrete exposed to sea water is often made with MS type cement. It is also used for mining or industrial applications.

MH Moderate Heat of Hydration Cement is especially designed to generate less heat, and more slowly, than a general use cement. Heat of hydration is a chemical process started when water is mixed with cement. Moderate heat of hydration cement is an optional characteristic that is offered to clients. This type of cement can be used in massive construction such as dams, bridge piers or columns, foundations or thick retaining walls for which the risk of heat-induced cracking is higher, especially if concrete is to be poured in warm weather.

HE High Early Strength Cement produces high strength in a shorter time, usually in a week or less. This cement is chemically and physically similar to the general use cement, except that its particles are grounded more finely. It is used when formwork have to be removed rapidly or if the construction has to be put in service without delay. For cold weather construction, HE cement reduces curing time.

LH Low Heat of Hydration Cement is used in cases where there is a need to reduce as much as possible the heat generated by the hydration process. This cement builds its resistance more slowly than other types of cement. It is recommended for massive concrete constructions such as gravity dams for which heat of hydration has to be reduced to a minimum. LH cement is usually available for major projects and on special order.

High Sulfate Resistance Cement is used in concrete with high sulfate exposure, mainly in cases where soil or groundwater has a high sulfate content. Strength from concrete made with sulfate resistance cement will develop more slowly than with the general hydraulic cement. A low water-cement ratio and a low permeability are essential for concrete exposed to sulfates.

White Portland Cement is distinct from regular grey cement by its white colour. It complies with general use and early high strength cements applicable CSA specifications. Manufacturing process using negligible amounts of iron and magnesium oxides produces its white colour. White portland cement is mostly used for architectural purposes: precast curtain walls, cladding panels, terrazzo, stucco, cement paint, ceramic grout or decorative concrete. It is recommended for white or coloured concrete, grouts or mortar.

Cement Uses and Designations According to North American Standards

Cements with Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Limestone Cement
Cements with a Reduced Environmental Footprint

Coming out of the kiln, clinker is cooled then grounded to a fine powder with 5% to 7% gypsum. Manufactured by Synergia™ process, this cement is already eco-efficient. By using other methods, it is possible to reduce even more the carbon footprint of cement by adding limestone or supplementary cementitious materials.

Limestone Cement
Just approved fairly recently, the Canadian Standards Association standard CSA-A3001-08 allows the addition of up to 15 % of limestone to cement, thus producing what is called «limestone cement». In comparison, for the same amount of regular GU cement, limestone GU (GUL) has a greater amount of limestone replacing the clinker. GUL cement maintains the same physico-chemical characteristics as GU cement.

Cement with Cementitious Supplementary Materials
Binary and ternary cement blend incorporates cementitious supplementary materials such as: silica fume, fly ash and blast furnace slag. These ingredients are wastes from industrial processes that are being recovered. These wastes are rerouted from landfills where they would have normally ended their service life. Adding supplementary cementitious materials to replace a portion of the cement content reduces the environmental footprint considerably. These cements are often specified for environmental value projects such as LEED® certified buildings.